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Pirate Party is a label adopted by political parties around the world. Pirate parties support civil rights, direct democracy (including e-democracy) or alternatively participation in government, reform of copyright and patent law, free sharing of knowledge (open content), information privacy, transparency, freedom of information, free speech, anti-corruption and net neutrality.
Pirate parties are often considered outside of the economic left-right spectrum or to have context-dependent appeal.
The first Pirate Party to be established was the Pirate Party of Sweden (Swedish: Piratpartiet), whose website was launched on 1 January 2006 by Rick Falkvinge. Falkvinge was inspired to found the party after he found that Swedish politicians were generally unresponsive to Sweden's debate over changes to copyright law in 2005.
The United States Pirate Party was founded on 6 June 2006 by University of Georgia graduate student Brent Allison. The party's concerns were abolishing the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, reducing the length of copyrights from 95 years after publication or 70 years after the author's death to 14 years, and the expiry of patents that do not result in significant progress after four years, as opposed to 20 years. However, Allison stepped down as leader three days after founding the party.
The Pirate Party of Finland was founded in 2008 and entered the official registry of Finnish political parties in 2009.
The 2009 European Parliament election took place between the 4 and 7 June 2009, and various Pirate Parties stood candidates. The most success was had in Sweden, where the Pirate Party of Sweden won 7.1% of the vote, and had Christian Engström elected as the first ever Pirate Party Member of European Parliament (MEP). Following the introduction of the Treaty of Lisbon, the Pirate Party of Sweden were afforded another MEP in 2011, that being Amelia Andersdotter.
In the 2011 Berlin state election to the Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin, the Pirate Party of Berlin (a state chapter of Pirate Party Germany) won 8.9% of the vote, which corresponded to winning 15 seats. John Naughton, writing for The Guardian, argued that the Pirate Party of Berlin's success could not be replicated by the Pirate Party UK, as the UK does not use a proportional representation electoral system.
In the 2013 Icelandic parliamentary election, the Icelandic Pirate Party won 5.1% of the vote, returning three Pirate Party Members of Parliament. Those were Birgitta Jónsdóttir for the Southwest Constituency, Helgi Hrafn Gunnarsson for Reykjavik Constituency North and Jón Þór Ólafsson for Reykjavik Constituency South. Birgitta had previously been an MP for the Citizens' Movement (from 2009 to 2013), representing Reykjavik Constituency South. As of 2015[update], it was the largest political party in Iceland, with 23.9% of the vote.
The 2014 European Parliament election took place between the 22 and 24 May. Felix Reda was at the top of the list for Pirate Party Germany, and was subsequently elected as the party received 1.5% of the vote. Other notable results include the Czech Pirate Party, who received 4.8% of the vote, meaning they were 0.2% off getting elected, the Pirate Party of Luxembourg, who received 4.2% of the vote, and the Pirate Party of Sweden, who received 2.2% of the vote, but lost both their MEPs.
Reda had previously worked as an assistant in the office of former Pirate Party MEP Amelia Andersdotter. On 11 June 2014, Reda was elected Vice-President of the Greens/EFA group in the European Parliament. Reda was given the job of copyright reform rapporteur.
The Icelandic Pirate Party was leading the national polls in March 2015, with 23.9%. The Independence Party polled 23.4%, only 0.5% behind the Pirate Party. According to the poll, the Pirate Party would win 16 seats in the Althing. In April 2016, in the wake of the Panama Papers scandal, polls showed the Icelandic Pirate Party at 43% and the Independence Party at 21.6%, although the Pirate Party eventually won 15% of the vote and 10 seats in the 29 October 2016 parliamentary election.
In April 2017, a group of students at University of California, Berkeley formed a Pirate Party to participate in the Associated Students of the University of California senate elections, winning the only third-party seat.
Czech Pirate Party, after finishing at the second place at the 2018 Prague municipal election, held on 5 and 6 October 2018, with 17.1%, formed a coalition with Prague Together and United Forces for Prague (TOP 09, Mayors and Independents, KDU-ČSL, Liberal-Environmental Party and SNK European Democrats). The representative of the Czech Pirate Party, Zdeněk Hřib, was selected as a Mayor of Prague. It is probably for the first time, when any pirate party has a mayor in one of the major cities of the world.
After the 2019 European Parliament election, three newly elected Czech Pirate MEPs and one German Pirate MEP were admitted to the Greens–European Free Alliance, the aforementioned group in the European Parliament that has previously included Swedish Pirate MEPs.
While parties vary insofar as specific policies go, common themes of the Pirate movement include:
- Defend the freedom of expression, communication, education; respect the privacy of citizens and civil rights in general.
- Defend the free flow of ideas, knowledge and culture.
- Support politically the reform of copyright and patent laws.
- Have a commitment to work collaboratively, and participate with maximum transparency.
- Do not support actions that involve violence.
- Use free software and open source software, open-source hardware, DIY and open protocols whenever possible.
- Politically defend an open, participative and collaborative construction of any public policy.
- Direct democracy/E-democracy
- Open access
- Open data
- Crowdfunding and crowdsourcing
Copyright and censorship
Some campaigns have included demands for the reform of copyright and patent laws. In 2010, Swedish MEP Christian Engström called for supporters of amendments to the Data Retention Directive to withdraw their signatures, citing a misleading campaign.
Pirate Parties International
Pirate Parties International (PPI) is the umbrella organization of the national Pirate Parties. Since 2006, the organization has existed as a loose union of the national parties. Since October 2009, Pirate Parties International has had the status of a non-governmental organization (Feitelijke vereniging) based in Belgium. The organization was officially founded at a conference from 16 to 18 April 2010 in Brussels, when the organization's statutes were adopted by the 22 national pirate parties represented at the event.
European Pirate Party
Pirates without Borders
Pirates Without Borders is an international association of pirates. Unlike Pirate Parties International (which accepts only parties as voting members and organizations as observing members), Pirates Without Borders accept individuals as members. The PWB see themselves as a basis for international projects. Through global cooperation, they strive to reveal the impact of multinational trade agreements on all people on Earth, and foster freedom and democracy. PWB originates from an independent committee for the coordination of Pirate parties in German-speaking countries, known as DACHLuke (DACHL = Germany-Austria-Switzerland-Luxembourg).
Since the Pirate Parties International Conference 2011 on 12 and 13 March 2011, PWB is an "observing member" of Pirate Parties International. The previously independent project "pirate streaming" has become a part of Pirates without Borders since 3 May 2011.
Parti Pirate Francophone
European Parliament elections
|Sweden||7 June 2009||7.1||2|
|Germany||7 June 2009||0.9||0|
|Croatia*||14 April 2013||1.1||0|
*Held in 2013 due to Croatia's entry into EU
|United Kingdom1||22 May 2014||0.5||0|
|Netherlands||22 May 2014||0.9||0|
|Austria2||25 May 2014||2.1||0|
|Croatia||25 May 2014||0.4||0|
|Czech Republic||25 May 2014||4.8||0|
|Finland||25 May 2014||0.7||0|
|France||25 May 2014||0.3||0|
|Germany||25 May 2014||1.5||1|
|Greece3||25 May 2014||0.9||0|
|Estonia4||25 May 2014||1.8||0|
|Luxembourg||25 May 2014||4.2||0|
|Poland||25 May 2014||<0.1||0|
|Slovenia||25 May 2014||2.6||0|
|Spain||25 May 2014||0.2||0|
|Sweden||25 May 2014||2.2||0|
1Party only participated in North West England constituency
2PPAT is in alliance with two other parties: The Austrian Communist Party and Der Wandel. The alliance is called "Europa Anders" and also includes some independents in their lists
3with Ecological Greens
4PPEE are campaigning for an independent candidate (Silver Meikar) who supports the pirate program
|Czech Republic||24 May 2019||330,844||14.0||3|
|Finland||26 May 2019||12,579||0.7||0|
|France||26 May 2019||30,105||0.1||0|
|Germany||26 May 2019||243,302||0.7||1|
|Italy||26 May 2019||60,809||0.2||0|
|Luxembourg||26 May 2019||96,579||7.7||0|
|Spain||26 May 2019||16,755||0.1||0|
|Sweden||26 May 2019||26,526||0.6||0|
|Sweden||17 September 2006||0.6||0/349|
|Germany||27 September 2009||2.0||0/622|
|Sweden||19 September 2010||0.7||0/349|
|United Kingdom||6 May 2010||0.4||0/650|
|Netherlands||9 June 2010||0.1||0|
|Finland||17 April 2011||0.5||0|
|Canada||2 May 2011||<0.1||0|
|Switzerland||23 October 2011||0.5||0|
|Spain||20 November 2011||0.1||0|
|Greece||6 May 2012||0.5||0|
|Greece||17 June 2012||0.2||0|
|Netherlands||15 March 2017||0.3||0|
|Israel||22 January 2013||0.1||0|
|Iceland||27 April 2013||5.1||3/63|
|Iceland||29 October 2016||14.5||10/63|
|Iceland||15 September 2017||9.2||6/63|
|Iceland||25 September 2021||8.6||6/63|
|Australia||7 September 2013||0.3||0|
|Australia||2 July 2016||<0.1||0|
|Australia||18 May 2019||TBA||0|
|Norway||9 September 2013||0.3||0|
|Germany||22 September 2013||2.2||0|
|Austria||29 September 2013||0.8||0|
|Luxembourg||20 October 2013||2.9||0|
|Slovenia||13 July 2014||1.3||0|
|Sweden||14 September 2014||0.4||0|
|Israel||17 March 2015||<0.1||0|
|Finland||19 April 2015||0.9||0|
|United Kingdom||6 May 2015||<0.1||0|
|Germany||24 September 2017||0.4||0|
|Czech Republic||21 October 2017||10.8||22/200|
|Iceland||28 October 2017||9.2||6/63|
|Slovenia||3 June 2018||2.2||0|
|Sweden||9 September 2018||0.1||0|
|Luxembourg||14 October 2018||6.5||2/60|
|Israel||9 April 2019||<0.1||0|
|Finland||14 April 2019||0.6||0|
|Belgium||26 May 2019||0.1||0|
|Czech Republic||9 October 2021||15.68 (in coalition with Mayors and Independents||4|
- Christian Engström, MEP for Sweden from 2009 to 2014
- Amelia Andersdotter, MEP for Sweden from 2011 to 2014
Chamber of Deputies of the Czech Republic (in office)
- Jakub Michálek, MP for Prague since 2017
- Dana Balcarová, MP for Prague since 2017
- Ondřej Profant, MP for Prague since 2017
- Olga Richterová, MP for Prague since 2017
- Jan Lipavský, MP for Prague since 2017
- Ivan Bartoš, MP for Central Bohemia since 2017, Leader of the Czech Pirate Party
- Lenka Kozlová, MP for Central Bohemia since 2017
- František Kopřiva, MP for Central Bohemia since 2017
- Lukáš Kolařík, MP for South Bohemia since 2017
- Lukáš Bartoň, MP for Plzeň since 2017
- Petr Třešnák, MP for Karlovy Vary since 2017
- František Navrkal, MP for Ústí nad Labem since 2019
- Tomáš Martínek, MP for Liberec since 2017
- Martin Jiránek, MP for Hradec Králové since 2017
- Mikuláš Ferjenčík, MP for Pardubice since 2017
- Jan Pošvář, MP for Vysočina since 2017
- Radek Holomčík, MP for South Moravia since 2017
- Tomáš Vymazal, MP for South Moravia since 2017
- Vojtěch Pikal, MP for Olomouc since 2017
- František Elfmark, MP for Zlín since 2017
- Lukáš Černohorský, MP for Moravian-Silesian since 2017
- Ondřej Polanský, MP for Moravian-Silesian since 2017
Senate of the Czech Republic (in office)
- Marcel Kolaja, MEP for Czech Republic since 2019
- Markéta Gregorová, MEP for Czech Republic since 2019
- Mikuláš Peksa, MEP for Czech Republic since 2019
- Libor Michálek, Senator for Prague 2 from 2012 to 2018
- Mikuláš Peksa, MP for Ústí nad Labem from 2017 to 2019
- Patrick Breyer, MEP for Germany since 2019
- Felix Reda, MEP for Germany from 2014 to 2019
Pirate Party Iceland
- Andrés Ingi Jónsson, MP for Reykjavík Constituency North from 2016, originally as a member of the Left-Green Movement, member of the Pirate Party since 2021
- Arndís Anna Kristínardóttir Gunnarsdóttir, MP for Reykjavík Constituency South since 2021
- Björn Leví Gunnarsson, MP for Reykjavík Constituency North from 2016 to 2017 and for Reykjavík Constituency South since 2017
- Gísli Rafn Ólafsson, MP for Southwest Constituency since 2021
- Halldóra Mogensen, MP for Reykjavík Constituency North since 2016
- Þórhildur Sunna Ævarsdóttir, MP for Southwest Constituency from 2016 to 2017, for Reykjavík Constituency South from 2017 to 2021, and for Southwest Constituency from 2021
Former representatives (Iceland)
- Birgitta Jónsdóttir, MP for Reykjavik Constituency South from 2009 to 2013, and for Southwest Constituency from 2013 to 2017
- Ásta Guðrún Helgadóttir, MP for Reykjavík Constituency South from 2015 to 2017
- Einar Brynjólfsson, MP for Northeast Constituency from 2016 to 2017
- Eva Pandóra Baldursdóttir, MP for Northwest Constituency from 2016 to 2017
- Gunnar Hrafn Jónsson, MP for Reykjavík Constituency South from 2016 to 2017
- Helgi Hrafn Gunnarsson, MP for Reykjavik Constituency North from 2013 to 2016 and again from 2017 to 2021
- Jón Þór Ólafsson, MP for Reykjavik Constituency South from 2013 to 2015 and for Southwest Constituency from 2016 to 2021
- Smári McCarthy, MP for Southwest Constituency since 2016 to 2021
Outside Sweden, pirate parties have been started in over 40 countries, inspired by the Swedish initiative.
- Freedom of speech portal
- Criticism of copyright
- Internet freedom
- Right to privacy
- Steal This Film
- The Pirate Bay
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- "About the PPI".
- Simon, Otjes (22nd January 2019). All on the same boat? Voting for pirate parties in comparative perspective. Political Studies Association, 2020, Vol. 40(1) no. 38–53 SAGE Publishing. Page 49: "This indicates that instead of not appealing along left-right lines at all, pirate party’s left-right appeal is context-dependent. Moreover, it is more closely related to sympathy for these parties than to party choice".
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- "Pirates without Borders Wiki". Pirates without Borders. Archived from the original on 27 April 2012. Retrieved 5 April 2012.
- "PPI Conference 2011: all Pirates and interested persons are welcome!". Facebook.
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- "Bc. Frantisek Navrkal". public.psp.cz.
- "Mgr. Radek Holomcik". public.psp.cz.
- "Bc. Frantisek Navrkal". public.psp.cz.[verification needed]
- "Tomas Vymazal". public.psp.cz.
- "Mgr. Radek Holomcik". public.psp.cz.[verification needed]
- "Pirát Peksa zvolený do europarlamentu se vzdal mandátu v české sněmovně. Nahradí ho analytik Navrkal". iROZHLAS.
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- Pirate Parties International – official website